The term coping is used to refer to the process by which a person attempts to manage successful demands. A person can focus on the specific problem that has arisen, trying to find some way of changing it or avoiding it in the future, this is called problem-focused coping. These are : –
• Learning problem-solving method
• Applying the process to an identified problem
• Role-playing interactive with others
A person can also focus on alleviating the emotion, associated with the stressful situation, even if the situation itself cannot be changed. This is called emotion-focused coping. It helps the person relax and reduce the feeling of stress. It includes relaxation, deep breathing, guided imagery, music, etc.
Coping strategies generally fall in 4 categories –
- When the problem is solved in a rational & productive way and the anxiety is reduced, it is said to be adaptive (positive).
- If the solution temporarily relieves the anxiety & beet the problem but still exists & must be dealt with again at a later time such copying is palliative (positive).
- If an unsuccessful attempt is made to decrease the anxiety without attempting to solve the problem are maladaptive & anxiety remains.
- The individual who does not attempt to reduce the anxiety or solve the problem is considered to have dysfunctional management of stressor.
The major role of a psychiatric nurse is to help the patient learn and regain highly effective coping strategies and avoid ineffective strategies. Strategies that temporarily use to relieve anxiety are as follows:-
• Visualization(any technique for creating images or animations to communicate a message), guided imagery (is a relaxation technique that uses positive mental images to influence how you feel), prayer & meditation.
• Concentration on breathing- slow, long, deep breathing.
• Relaxation training for reducing tension & increasing muscle relaxation.
• Engaging in yoga, adopting a healthy lifestyle such as a balanced diet, sleep exercise.
• Avoiding smoking, alcohol, other substances.
• Spending time with caring, supportive & optimistic people for social support.
• Listening to music.
• Engaging in personal growth activities & increasing self activities.
• Decreasing in a negative view of the self-other, problem and replacing these with positive thoughts.