It is defined as abnormal & irreversible dilatation of bronchi & bronchioles(>2mm in diameter) develops secondary to weakening of the bronchial wall. Mostly persistent cough with expectoration of copious amount with foul smell purulent sputum is the common clinical feature.
– The inflammatory destructive process always results of endobronchial obstruction by a foreign body, enlarge lymph nodes, neoplastic growth causes resorption of air distal to the obstruction with consequent atelectasis.
-Secondary to the local obstruction which causes infection & impaired defense mechanism promotes bacterial growth.
It affects distal bronchi & bronchioles beyond segmental bronchi.
The lungs may be involved diffusely or segmentally. The pleura is fibrotic & thickened with adhesion to the chest wall. Dilated airway have been classified as:-
- Cylindrical- Characterised by tube-like bronchial dilation found frequently
- Fusiform– Spindle shaped
- Saccular– Rounded sac-like
- Varicose– Having irregular enlargements
-Cut surface of affected lobe generally lower, shows honeycombed appearance & the bronchi lumina filled with mucus pus.
-Bronchial epithelium may be normal or show squamous metaplasia.
-The bronchial wall shows infiltration by acute or chronic inflammatory cells, destruction of normal muscle, fibrosis & bands of fibrous tissues between bronchus & pleura.