The term coping is used to refer to the process by which a person attempts to manage successful demands. A person can focus on the specific problem that has arisen, trying to find some way of changing it or avoiding it in the future, this is called problem focused coping. These are : –
• Learning problem solving method.
• Applying the process to identified problem.
• Role playing interactive with others.
A person can also focus on alleviating the emotion associated with the stressful situation even if the situation itself cannot be changed. This is called emotion focused coping. It help person relax and reduce feeling of stress. It include relaxation,deep breathing, guided imagery, music etc.
Coping strategies generally fall in 4 categories –
- when the problem is solved in a rational & productive way and the anxiety is reduced it is said to be adaptive (positive).
- If the solution temporarily relieves the anxiety beet the problem still exist & must be dealt with again at a later time such copying is palliative (positive).
- If unsuccessful attempt are made to decrease the anxiety without attempting to solve the problem are maladaptive & anxiety remains.
- The individual who does not attempt to reduce the anxiety or solve the problem is considered to have dysfunctional management of stressor.
The major role of psychiatric nurse is to help patient learn and regain highly effective coping strategies and avoid ineffective or destructive strategies.Strategies that temporarily use the effect of anxiety are:-
• Visualization, guided imagery, prayer & mediation.
• Concentration on breathing- slow, long, deep breathing.
• Relaxation training for reducing tension & increasing muscle relaxation.
• Engaging in yoga, adopting a healthy life style such as balanced diet, sleep exercise.
• Avoiding smoking, alcohol, other substances.
• Spending time with caring, supportive & optimistic people for social support.
• Listening to music.
• Engaging in personal growth activities & increasing self activities.
• Decreasing in negative view of self other, problem and replacing these with positive thoughts.