Anatomy and Physiology


Human Mouth

The mouth is also known as the oral or buccal cavity is formed by the lips-anteriorly, oropharynx- posteriorly cheeks-laterally, hard and soft palates–superiorly and by the tongue-inferiorly.

  •  The lips contain the orbicularis oris muscle and are covered externally by the skin and internally by a mucous membrane. The inner surface of each lip is attached to its gum by a fold of mucous membrane called the labial frenulum.
  •  The oral vestibule of the oral cavity is the space formed externally by the cheeks and lips and internally by the gums and teeth.
  •  The oral cavity proper is the space that extends from the gums and teeth to the fauces, the opening between the oral cavity and the oropharynx.
  • The palate that separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity forms the roof of the mouth. The hard palate—the anterior portion is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones. The soft palate, which forms the posterior portion of the roof of the mouth, is an arch-shaped muscular partition between the oropharynx and nasopharynx.
  • Hanging from the free border of the soft palate is a conical muscular structure called the uvula. During swallowing, the soft palate and uvula are pushed superiorly, which closes nasopharynx to prevent swallowed foods from entering the nasal cavity.
  • To the base of the uvula are two muscular folds, Anteriorly, the palatoglossal arch extends to the side of the base of the tongue; posteriorly, the palatopharyngeal arch extends to the side of the pharynx. The palatine tonsils are situated between these 2 arches or lingual tonsils are situated at the base of the tongue.
  • Mouth containing different structure within it-

• Salivary glands
• Tongue
• Teeth

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