Bones of the Foot

The foot consists of 26 bones in each lower limb, 7 Tarsals, 5 Metatarsals, and 14 Phalanges.

Tarsals

Tarsals

It is the proximal region of the foot and consists of seven bones.

-The talus and calcaneus located in the posterior part of the foot.

-The calcaneus is the largest and strongest tarsal bone.

The anterior tarsal bones are the navicular- a boat like structure, three cuneiform bones called the third (lateral), second (intermediate), and first (medial) cuneiforms, and the cuboid-cube shaped.

-The Joints between the tarsal bones are called intertarsal joints.

-The talus is the only one of the foot that articulates with the fibula and tibia. It articulates on one side with the medial malleolus of the tibia and on the other side with the lateral malleolus of the fibula. These articulations form the talocrural (ankle) joint.

Metatarsals

Metatarsals

It forms the intermediate region of the foot, consists of five metatarsal bones numbered 1–5 from the medial to lateral.

-Each metatarsal consists of a proximal base, an intermediate shaft, and a distal head.

-They articulate proximally with the first, second, and third cuneiform bones and with the cuboid to form the tarsometatarsal joints.

-Distally, they articulate with the proximal row of phalanges to form the metatarsophalangeal joints.

Foot phalanges

Phalanges

They form the distal end of the foot, are numbered 1–5 beginning with the great toe, from medial to lateral.

-Each consists of a proximal base, an intermediate shaft, and a distal head but the great or big toe has two large, phalanges- proximal and distal phalanges.

-The other four toes each have three phalanges—proximal, middle, and distal.

-The proximal phalanges of all toes articulate with the metatarsal bones and the middle phalanges articulate with their distal phalanges, while the proximal phalanx of the great toe articulates with its distal phalanx.

-Joints between phalanges of the foot are called interphalangeal joints.

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