Every individual has some or the other need by the satisfaction & dissatisfaction of needs his behaviour is affected. Food, water, sex, air, sleep etc. are some innate needs, fulfillment of which is necessary.
According to C.L. Hull, (1947) drive gives energy to the behaviour but not direction.
Stimulus is any object in the external environment Which satisfies the need & by such act minimizes the drive eg. Food is the incentive for hunger drive because food satisfies this drive.
Murrays’s theory of need:-
Murray H.A stated that need is a construct which stands for a force in the brain region, a force which organizes perception, intellect, conation & action in such a way as to transform in a certain direction & existing, unsatisfying situation.
||Be Resigned to fate, seek & enjoy pain, admit inferiority.
||Overcome obstacle, rival & surpass others.
||Please & win affection, adhere & remain loyal to a friend.
||Overcome opposition forcefully.
||Free to act according to impulse.
||Overcome weakness, fear, defend the self against criticism
||Admire & support a superior.
||Influence the behaviour of others by suggestion.
||Make an impression.
||Escape from a dangerous situation.
||Give sympathy & gratify the need of a helpless object
||Seek enjoyable relaxation of stress.
||Exclude or expel
||Seek & enjoy sensuous impression.
||Form erotic & sexual relationship
||Remain close to a devoted protector.
||Interested in formulation, analysis & generation.
Types of motives:-
It is of 2 type. First type consist of innate, biological, primary motives. They are originate from biological needs like hunder, thirst, sleep, sex etc. Second type consist of adopted & learned motives.
(A) PRIMARY DRIVES/INNATE:-
- Hunger:- Whenever a person works there is loss of energy & to compensate the energy loss he feeds or eat.
- B.D. Anand discover eating centre in lateral hypothalamus on destroying these centres in brain the hunger dies in man.
- The hunger drive due to oral factor like- movement of lips, teeth, tongue. Chewing movement of mouth & secretion of saliva etc. It is proved by miller’s experiment. He gave milk to 1 group of rat by mouth & other group by the tube which was again given to both group only second group took the milk.
- Thirst drive:-
- The various parts of body needs water because the use of water in various part, water is required. The need of water generate the thirst drive produced by drying of throat & mouth.
- Brain has drinking centre. This part of hypothalamus is osmo- receptor & regulate the blood concentration.
- Sex:- It is one of main biological drive. Although it is not important as hunger & thirst drive still it is powerful drive. This drive in various animals depends on various hormonal secretion. Gonad gland are called sex gland. In male testes & female ovaries work as gland
- To Beach (1957) the destruction of anterior Hypothalamus is many type of animal decreases the sexual activity.
- Sleep:- Whenever the person work fatigue arises which is reduced by sleep. The experiment in this direction show that reticular formation in brain conduct the sleeping & walking function.
RAS- Reticular activating system is present in the area of cortex.
- REM- Rapid eye movement sleep- It is associated with dreaming & called as dream sleep.
- NREM- Non Rapid eye movement sleep.No eye movement takes place & person sleep.
- Post. Hypothalamus is centre for alertness & anterior Hypothalamus is centre for sleep.
- α -8-13 cycle/sec.
- β-active awareness,> 13 cycle/ sec.
- δ- Sleep<4 cycle/sec.
- θ-4-7 cycle/ sec. drawziness.
(B) SOCIOGENIC MOTIVES:-
1) Approval Motivation:- The person thinks that other person may not only think this act & behaviour to be right & good from social & ethical point of view but may also approve them. This motive is found in all when the person is highly motivated then he perform only socially approved things & not approved. In studies it was seen that people with high approval motive & high degree of ego defense & such persons become aggressive by other’s opinion and change their own motive soon.
2) Affiliation Motivation:- In the presence of this motive the person is pleased to make relation with others, in the presence or company with others. People who spend most of their time in family, club friend etc. have this motive in excess. This motive effectively impresses the person’s behavior.
3) Achievement Motivation:- It is a sort of permanent tendency in man which is related to achievement or success. It is seen that the person who are rich in this motive like to do things in which they are praised.Man can be driven actively for many behavior due to this motive like in any field of behaviour . He can make efforts for level of excellence.He can work for success in some selected field. He can make efforts to achieve the highest place in any competition. He can make efforts for betterment of his life. He can be proved & happy of his success. If he fails to achieve her goal he blame himself for his failure.
4) Power Motivation :-Is that motive with the person is satisfied by controlling the means by which the behavior of others are affected. A person with this motive possess many qualities like feeling of satisfaction, controlling other person, feeling satisfied by making others do according to their wish.
5) Aggressiveness Motive :–The person in this, wants to attack other person, fight, abuse them, he wants to injure, pain and destroy other in this way. Freud describe 2 instinct of man -> life & death.Death instinct include aggressive motive. But this instinct is not innate but acquired & develops due to learned behavior.
6) Gregariousness :-The tendency of living in group is known as gregariousness. This motive is found in some or other quantity in nearly all the person of society. It is seen that every man need other man’s co-operation because co-operation makes the work convenient. Alone he is afraid but become bold in a group.
7) Acquisitiveness :-It is that tendency in which the person wants to collect & preserve the useful & attractive things. People of various societies & various culture show different amount of this tendency. This motive develops from the age of 3 years. This tendency is high in the societies where individual property is given preference.
8) Self Assertion :–It is that tendency of person by which he wants to prove himself powerful and strong. When the individual attain this motive he develops the feeling of superiority contrary to it, when he fails to achieve this motive he develops feeling of inferiority.It is seen that when there is an obstruction in the child’s learning anger is produced with development of experience this motive develops.
9) Pugnacity :-It refers to dispute or quarrel. The reason of war is this tendency. The reason of the production of their tendency are 2-obstruction in the fulfillment of physiological need, education & that environment from which the individual acquire this tendency.The children are brought up in the environment of jealously, revenge, self-exhibition, quarrel and their environment give them to training of pugnacity.
(C) PERSONAL MOTIVES:-
Are those which the person learn on the basis of his own experience.
1) Life Goal :-When even a person comes in contact with other person he decides one or other goal of his life like other person. Once the goal of his life is made, person works in direction of attainment of this goal.
2) Level of Aspiration :-It is related to life goal. The wish of attaining any type of goal is called aspiration and the intensity of attaining the goal is called the level of aspiration. It gives the idea of individual’s aim & the effort made by person to attain the goal. Because of high level of aspiration & lack of abilities when he fails to achieve his desired goal as a result anxiety, mal-adjustment, imbalance takes place.
3) Unconscious Motives :-The propagator of psychoanalytic school. Frued said great emphasis on unconscious motives in the description of human behavior. In the description of dreams too he lays great importance to unconscious mind.
Expert have advised yogic exercise to control these unconscious motives.
Other General Needs :-
Modern psychologist have not conside this motive as physiological motive. Curiosity is that motive in which the person not only discovers the objective in his environment but also tries to gain knowledge from them.
White (1959) on the basis of their experiment said that children satisfy their curiosity by game. The relation of curiosity is with the efforts of attaining knowledge.
This need of person is related to those wishes by which he keeps others and shows sympathy to others. This need develop since childhood. Cultural differences are evident in this need. The individual in which this need is prominent their behavior is humanitarian.
To save one’s self from dangers and the tendency to escape is found in all individuals. This natural tendency of man is specially evident when there is any probability of danger. Eg- If a pin pricked in any part of man’s body he will immediately remove that part.